The Authenticity of the Body


On Thursday March 22, at 4:00pm – 6:00pm (Australian Hearing Hub, Level 5, Room 212, Macquarie University) the Markers of Authenticity Seminar Series will recommence for 2018 with two speakers, Dr Karin Sellberg from the School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry at the University of Queensland, and Professor Wendy Rogers from the Departments of Clinical Medicine and Philosophy at Macquarie University.

Our theme this seminar is the Authenticity of the Body, that is the way the body has been regulated and thought of in medicine, the media, and in society. Ideas about what constitutes the ideal state and what variations are permissable, tolerable, invited, and recognised shape the possibilities we imagine for ourselves and our conception of what it is to be embodied.


Narrative Authenticity: Transgender Identity, ‘Passing’ and Coming-of-Age Stories

Dr Karin Sellberg, School of Historical and Philosophical Inquiry, University of Queensland

From its modern emergence in the 1950’s and 60’s, transgender subjectivity and embodiment has relied on narrative as a means of transformation. After the highly publicized international announcement of the ‘first sex change’ of Christine Jorgensen in 1952, there was a surge of transition autobiographies published, outlining the pre- and post-transition histories and emotional developments of (initially primarily female-to-male) transsexual authors of various nationalities and backgrounds, as well as a number of academic works, also by transgender authors, analyzing these autobiographies and the questions they pose about gender.

Bernice Hausman recognizes both types of texts to be narratives of authenticity, or identity formation in Changing Sex (Routledge, 1995). Stories about how ‘I always knew I was a little girl/boy’, have become canonical within transgender academia and culture, as well as within the private experiences of transgender men and women. Not merely have they become the means by which a person can prove their transgender status within the clinical space, and thus receive treatment, but they’ve also become an often reiterated and internalized means of connection and self-recognition within transgender cultural spaces.

This paper will investigate the ways in which a number of linked transgender coming-of-age blogs reiterate the narrative structures as well as the more or less theoretical analyses coming out of the autobiographical transgender canon. I will argue that there is a canonical shape, content and understanding of the narratives of self appearing within this online community, and that these constraints determine the perimeters of ‘authentic’ transgender experiences.



“Overdiagnosis and the problem of ‘real’ diseases”

Professor Wendy A. Rogers, Department of Philosophy and Department of Clinical Medicine, Macquarie University.

 The criteria for defining what ‘counts’ as a disease are contested in philosophy and medicine alike. Conditions such as measles, tuberculosis or malignant melanoma are widely accepted as authentic diseases. In contrast, conditions such as Gulf War Syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome and Lyme-like disease occupy a less certain place in Western nosology. Longstanding challenges in defining disease have been exacerbated by technological advances in medicine that permit identification of ever smaller degrees of abnormality; by the introduction of widespread screening programs; and by changes in diagnostic criteria for specific diseases. These factors have prompted the observation that much of diagnosed disease does not progress in the expected ways, a phenomenon known as overdiagnosis. Overdiagnosis is the detection of conditions taken to be diseases that would not have harmed the individual if left undetected. Overdiagnosis of “non-authentic” diseases raises a plethora of conceptual and ethical challenges, upon which I touch in this talk.

Disobedience in the Milgram Experiments: Kathryn Millard’s Experiment 20

Professor Kathryn Millard (Department of Media, Music, Communication and Cultural Studies) has been working on the famous Milgram ‘Obedience to Authority’ experiments for a number of years, mining the archives for new critical insights into the human reality behind the now infamous conclusions. Her interdisciplinary projects, working with psychologists in the United Kingdom, get under the skin of psychological method and reveal on film the importance of small moments of resistance. Following on from the success of Shock Room, Experiment 20 (featured in the Guardian Australia’s Present Traces series) highlights the experience of women participating in the experiment by using recordings of the experiment to bring them to life on the screen. Professor Millard will be discussing these projects in the final event of our Markers of Authenticity seminar series, The Spectacle of Science, this year in November.

Online Conspiracy Forums and Belief – Colin Klein, Peter Clutton & Vince Polito

phil-colin_klein 2

Last year, Dr Colin Klein (Philosophy, ANU) presented in our Markers of Authenticity seminar on ‘Faking the News’ with Dr Margie Borschke (MMCCS, Macquarie University) on the 14th of August. Colin’s work, with colleagues Peter Clutton (formerly ARC Centre of Excellence in Cognition and its Disorders, Macquarie University) and Vince Polito (Department of Cognitive Science, Macquarie University), on conspiracy theories and the online communities which disseminate these has now been published in the journal Frontiers in Psychology: Personality and Social Psychology (Feb. 21 2018). Check out ‘Topic Modeling Reveals Distinct Interests within an Online Conspiracy Forum‘ to learn more about how this work on online conspiracy forums complicates our picture of belief. Vince Polito will be speaking later this year in our Markers of Authenticity seminar on the Authenticity of Faith.

‘Markers of Authenticity’ in 2017

We’re a bit late on reporting on our Markers of Authenticity series in 2017, but thought we should put out a recap as we look ahead to 2018.

In 2017 the Markers of Authenticity Interdisciplinary Seminar Series continued at Macquarie University, supported by funding from Faculty of Arts Research Theme funding scheme, and the MQ Ancient Cultures Research Centre: we’re very grateful to both bodies for their generous support.

Our 2017 program saw an increase in disciplinary representation across the Faculty and University: as well as the range of fields represented by the presenters, the audiences regularly featured staff and students from a wide range of departments (International Studies; English; Ancient History; Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies; Linguistics; Philosophy; Modern History; Security Studies and Criminology; and Cognitive Science). Audience numbers averaged between 20 and 30 throughout the year, with several larger events exceeding this. This year we aimed to enhance our  links with other research clusters and centres, and to this end co-sponsored events with the Centre for Applied History, the ‘Environmental Humanities’ research cluster, the ‘World Literatures and Cultures’ Research Cluster, and the Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies.

In the first half of 2017 we held three events: a seminar ‘On Authenticity and Race’ on May 26th, given by Dr Adam Hochman (Philosophy) with a response by A/Prof. Andrew Gillett (Ancient History); an introduction and progress report on the ARC-funded Project ‘Forging Antiquity’ by A/Prof. Malcolm Choat, Dr Rachel-Yuen Collingridge, and our PACE intern (and now Research Assistant) Vanessa Mawby (Ancient History) on June 2; and a conversation on June 9th on ‘The Internet Antiquities Trade: Insight into an Invisible Market?’ between Lauren Dundler (MRes student, Ancient History) and Iain Shearer (Freelance archaeologist, Honorary Fellow University College London).

We began our program for the second half of the year on August 14th with a seminar on ‘Faking the News’, with papers by Dr Colin Klein (Philosophy) and Dr Margie Borschke (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies). This was followed on September 5th by a seminar by Dr Julian Droogan (Security Studies and Criminology) on ‘The Authentic Terrorist?: Mobilising the Past, Battling for the Future’.

confOn October 13th–14th, we co-hosted a conference, ‘Imagining the Real: Alternative (Arte)Facts from Antiquity to the Present Day’ with the Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies, which featured keynote speakers from the University of Western Australia (Emeritus Professors John Melville Jones ) and University of Agder (Professor Årstein Justnes), in addition to a range of other speakers ( program and abstracts for the conference).

In late October (26th), we held a seminar on ‘Creative Authenticity: Originality and the Real’ with papers given by Dr. Mio Bryce (International Studies) and Dr Ilona Hongisto (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies).

In early November (2nd), we co-sponsored a panel on the ‘Authenticity of Experience: IMG_20171102_190404History and Gaming’ with the Centre for Applied History, which was attended by nearly 60 people. Dr Rowan Tulloch (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies), Daniel Keogh (Educational Games Designer, 3P Learning), and Abbie Hartman (Modern History), gave presentations, followed by a lively Q&A with the audience. Thanks to funding contributed by the Centre for Applied History, the presentations were recorded on video, and can be seen online.

One week later (Nov. 9th), we held a seminar on the ‘Authenticity of Desire’ with papers by Dr Thomas Baudinette (International Studies), and Dr Chelsea Barnett (Modern History). Finally, we co-sponsored a workshop on December 11th on ‘Environmental Change and the Historical Imaginary: Ancient, Medieval, Modern’, with the ‘Environmental Humanities’ research cluster, convened by Professor Louise D’Arcens (English) and featuring an international keynote as well as speakers from Ancient History, Modern History, and English.

We think the 2017 iteration of the series had extremely good outcomes in terms of bringing together a broad cross-disciplinary group to a regular forum to discuss a central theme from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Planning for our 2018 program is well advanced (see our ideas here), and we hope to see many of you at these events: we’ll post a final schedule as soon as it’s available.

Markers of Authenticity, Events for 2018


For 2018 we have a range of events planned including seminars, a conference, and a showcase evening.

We will be holding seminars on:

  • the Authenticity of the Body, looking at the history and present of the medical interventions on and reasoning about ‘authentic’ bodies;
  • the Authenticity of Landscape, looking at the way ideas of authenticity are mobilised to privilege certain environments and stages of cultivation over others;
  • the Authenticity of Identity, looking at the way identity is determined and policed by new technologies meant to counter identity fraud

And finally

  • the Authenticity of Faith, looking at discourses of heresy, faith, and delusion from a range of perspectives including historical and cognitive.

The conference,  How to edit a forgery: Manuscripts from the Margins, for the Australian Research Council Discovery Project: Forging Antiquity: Authenticity, forgery and fake papyri, will consider the how and why of editing forgeries from a practical and ethical perspective. The conference will involve a number of international scholars from diverse fields from antiquity through to the Renaissance examining these issues through editions of specific forgeries, as well as a series of public lectures to showcase the theme.

And finally, to end the year off, we will host a showcase event on the intersection between Art and Science, looking at the way humanities methods have been used to propel and communicate scientific discovery. The format of the evening will be one of wonder and spectacle, to remind us that scientific communication (broadly conceived) has historically been embedded in worlds of social and intellectual ritual, from the salon through to the cabinet of curiosity.

Do sign up to keep in touch and hear more about these events as our plans unfold!


Rights of the Dead and Orientalism

In a learned discussion about the history of the ethics of displaying human remains, Chip Colwell (senior curator of Anthropology at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science) illustrates many problems with displaying  Human Remains (‘The Long Ethical Arc of Displaying Human Remains’, Atlas Obscura, November 16, 2017). The discussion covers the current fad for exhibitions of human remains and narrates the history of the collection and exhibition of Native American Human Remains and the successful battle to prohibit this and return remains to their communities.

Colwell draws comparison with the treatment of human remain from other cultures (Britain, Vikings, Neolithic China), highlighting in particular the case of the Egyptian mummy.

He draws attention to the indulgent use of Egyptian remains as a source of spectacle and fantasy from the Enlightenment on (he might have also included reference to the long Renaissance engagement with Egypt propelled in part by the rediscovery of Horapollo’s ‘translation’ of hieroglyphs among others).  Here he points out rightly “the collection of Egyptian skeletons is rooted in colonialism and a disregard for the wishes of the dead.” However, the claims which follow make out of Ancient Egypt a special case and include a number of points with which we would take issue.

The paragraph of concern in its entirety runs as follows:

Like the treatment of Native Americans, the collection of Egyptian skeletons is rooted in colonialism and a disregard for the wishes of the dead. But, while living Native Americans claim descent from their continent’s first peoples, the Islamic communities of Egypt do not claim continuity with the people who built the pyramids. And even if they did, mummies were gathered to glorify ancient Egyptians while Native American skeletons were long collected to dehumanize indigenous peoples. The modern-day Egyptian government has given its consent for the excavation of tombs.

Let’s examine these claims:

The claim that “the Islamic communities of Egypt do not claim continuity with the people who built the pyramids” reflects a widespread misconception which does not recognise explicit institutional and popular identifications with the Pharaonic past. The use of Pharaonic imagery in government artworks like those which adorn the National Military Museum illustrates the ongoing importance of Egypt’s ancient history to its sense of agency and identity.
National Military Museum, Cairo. Image: Richard Seaman,

Likewise the spontaneous appearance of Pharaonic imagery in graffiti during and after the Revolution by Egyptian artists like Alaa Awad among others attests to the ongoing importance of Ancient Egypt to the present and future of Egypt’s peoples (see the discussion by Lisa Lau, ‘The murals of Mohammad Mahmoud Street: Reclaiming Narratives of Living History for the Egyptian People’, Boston University: Arts & Sciences Writing Program, Issue 5, 2013–2013).

Alaa Awad’s mural from Mohammad Mahmoud Street, image: Lisa Lau,

Such a sharp division between Egypt’s Pharaonic and Islamic pasts does not acknowledge the fact that some of the earliest Egyptologists concerned with the material and linguistic remains of Ancient Egypt were Islamic scholars. Figures like Al-Idrisi, the 12th century scholar responsible for some of the earliest descriptions of the monuments at Giza, or Ibn Wahshiyya, the 9th/10th century alchemist whose investigations of hieroglyphs recognised determinatives and some phonetic values, have been largely excluded from the Napoleon-centric version of the history of Egyptology.

Beyond these artistic, governmental, and scholarly links, a connection with the Pharaonic past is deeply felt by many modern Egyptians, within Egypt and throughout the Egyptian diaspora. At times the ‘authenticity’ of such connections is disputed. This type of argument engages in an orientalising view of culture, in which only certain communities are allowed to sustain the integrity of their connection with the past in spite of monumental and significant changes in belief, government, practices and demography (see on this in particular the work of James Clifford). The “glorification” of Egypt in the hands of scholarship has often supported – not combatted – the orientalising view of Egypt as other. A fetishised approval is no less diminishing.

Finally, one might interrogate the notion of consent. Colwell correctly notes that the Egyptian government, via the Ministry of Antiquities, grants permission for the archaeological investigation of theses tombs. But what of the wishes of the dead? Evidence from grave and tomb inscriptions from across the Mediterranean indicates clearly that disturbing a burial threatened the spiritual wellbeing of the deceased. Such interference is strictly and explicitly prohibited. The evidence from Ancient Egypt is voluminous in this respect. The statements are repeated in tombs from across Egypt’s history from the Old Kingdom to the Late period, such as the 6th Dynasty tomb of Djenwen:

“As for any man who will do something against this (tomb), there will be judgement with him by the Great God”

or the 25th Dynasty Block Statue of Montuemhat from Karnak:

“As for anyone against this tomb in my place: the one who disturbs is a criminal”

or finally the 18th Dynasty Statue of Wersu from Koptos:

“As for anyone who will desecrate my corpse in the necropolis, who will remove my statue from my tomb, he will be a hated one of Re, he will not receive water from the water-jar of Osiris, he will not hand over his possessions to his children, ever.” … “As for the one who desecrates my place, who will damage my tomb or remove my corpse, the soul of Re will hate him, he will not hand over his possessions to his children, his heart will not rest in life, he will not receive water in the necropolis, his soul will be destroyed forever.”

In these curses the damage to be inflicted on those who violate the bodies and tombs of the deceased mirrors that which is incurred by the deceased through such actions.

The beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians are as clear as can be on this matter, as countless curses of this nature demonstrate. More can be found in the thesis of Sarah Colledge, who studied these curses for her 2015 Liverpool PhD, and whose translations we cite above (other examples are on her blog, and in the thesis itself which may be viewed here). It’s unlikely that the Ancient Egyptians would be sympathetic to the ethical sophistry of those who might want to argue that new non-invasive technologies (CT scanning among others) respect these wishes: such scans are only possible because the bodies have been removed from the tomb (thus violating the dead’s wishes) in the first place.

An advanced screening at the recent ‘Creative Uses of the Archive‘ Workshop at Macquarie University of parts of the documentary, Etched in Bone, being made by ANU researchers Martin Thomas and Béatrice Bijon about the stealing and repatriation of skeletal remains from mortuary caves in a North Australian Aboriginal reserve provided us with a salient reminder of the importance of critically assessing past practice. The remains which were taken to the Smithsonian Institution when the National Geographic American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land visited the region in 1948 were repatriated to the settlement of Gunbalanya after a long campaign by the Australian government (among others) in 2009–2010. Such repatriation efforts sadly coincide often with the deaths of those who witnessed the thefts in the first place. They remind us of our responsibilities to the dead and to the diverse communities to which they belong. In the case of people from the ancient world, there may be no one left to speak for them:  does this mean we should heed their wishes any less?

Malcolm & Rachel




Creative Uses of the Archive

Last month in the Markers of Authenticity Seminar Series we enjoyed a paper by Dr Ilona Hongisto on ‘True fabulations: The act of creation in documentary cinema’ in our seminar dedicated to creative authenticity. Ilona will be running a fantastic symposium with Dr Tom Murray next Friday (Nov. 10) at Macquarie University called Creative Uses of the Archive which will explore the uses and misuses of archival documents in documentary film, historical research, anthropology and non-fiction writing. More information about the symposium, keynotes and program is available on our Related Events page.

Replacing Race – Adam Hochman



Earlier this year, Dr Adam Hochman (Philosophy) presented in our Markers of Authenticity seminar ‘On authenticity and race’ (May, 2017). Those of you in attendance and those who couldn’t make it will be excited to hear that Adam’s thoughts about the failure of race to be a viable social category have now been published as ‘Replacing Race: Interactive Constructionism about Racialized Groups‘, ERGO 4 (2017) 61–92, which has been made available on Adam’s page. If you haven’t yet got the opportunity to hear Adam speak on these issues (and even if you have) make sure to get yourself a copy.

This is Not a Remix: Piracy, Authenticity and Popular Music – Margie Borschke


Those of you lucky enough to hear Dr Margie Borschke talk about copying, network culture, authenticity and mimesis at either the Markers of Authenticity Seminar in October, 2016 or in our recent conference ‘Imagining the Real: Alternative (Arte)facts from Antiquity to the Present Day’ (October, 2017) will be keen to get your copy of her stimulating and brilliant book, This is Not a Remix (available in hardcopy,  paperback, EPUB ebook and PDF ebook). Margie’s book is being launched today in MMCCS and the whole Markers of Authenticity team sends their very best for this fantastic occasion.

Fabricating Authenticity: Reflections on the Theme

This paper was delivered (in modified format) as the wrap-up to our recent conference ‘Imagining the Real: Alternative (Arte)facts from Antiquity to the Present Day’ (Macquarie University, 13–14th October, 2017). It was meant as a series of provocations, an experiment in thought in response to the papers delivered at that event and will be published in an expanded form in the future. 

In the opening of the letter which constitutes the first part of John Cleland’s notorious novel Fanny Hill: Memoires of a Woman of Pleasure (1749) , the eponymous heroine sets out the principle of her confession: “Truth! stark naked truth is the word, and I will not so much as take pains to bestow the strip of a gauze-wrapper on it, but paint situations as they actually rose to me in nature, careless of violating those laws of decency that were never made for such unreserved intimacies as ours; and you have too much sense, too much knowledge of the originals themselves, to sniff prudishly and out of character at the pictures of them.” The book had been written to alleviate Cleland’s debt whilst he languished in jail. However within nine months of the publication of its second part, the author and publisher were arrested again and charged with ‘corrupting the King’s subjects’; the book itself withdrawn. The appearance of an expurgated and authorised version a year later by the author did not stop the creation and distribution of pirate editions from 1751 on, in which scenes were added or embellished.

Ten years after their publication none other than Johann Winckelmann, a foundational German art historian and archaeologist, declared in a letter to Francke on the 1st of January, 1759 that the work “the most obscene book that the world has ever seen”, to which he added, “but it is by a master of the art, by a man of delicate feelings and high ideas, and written in a sublime Pindaric style”. He was captivated apparently by the unauthorised salacious amplifications. The book was only taken off the list of prohibited books in Singapore in 2015. More recently this August the British Press was overwhelmed with false reports that the book had been banned from the literature syllabus of Royal Holloway, which were repeated in the Guardian, Times, Telegraph, Daily Mail, and even Vogue. Fake News abounds.

So what does a pornographic novel have to do with questions of authenticity and forgery? The proposition I want to put to you is simple. Given the diversity of motivations and receptions of forgery throughout history – from the Australian scandal of the Ern Malley Affair, Constantine Simonides’ forgeries, the Demotic Gospel of Thomas, the output of Mark Landis or Beltracchi, to the Gospel of Jesus’ Wife – it is somewhat inadequate to treat it as a coherent and unique phenomenon. Instead, I am going to suggest that this diversity makes better sense if we understand forgery as a manifestation of a set of impulses I will characterise as a drive to Realism. And because with the invocation of Realism I run the risk of simply replacing one opacity with another, I intend to spend this discussion addressing some of the features of this drive from an interdisciplinary perspective.

The contradictions and double entendres within the passage from Fanny Hill illuminate the paradox that underpins the drive to Realism. A wealthy male author occupies the voice of woman to tell the story of her rise to riches by virtue of her sexual exploits. Fantasy translated into confession. Truth in this context is literally naked, although the gauze denied is paradoxically present in the very act of this confession, of representation, as the final words suggest with their contrast between originals and pictures. The mediation of language, of representation of any kind, constitutes a kind of copying, an attempt at nature, at rendering the real which sharpens our appreciation of the gap between experience and what we do with it. Copying in this way is an expression of loss. In the words of Baudrilland, ‘to simulate is to feign to have what one hasn’t.’ (Simulations, p. 5).

The urge to copy, to represent, is fundamental. It constitutes the way we perceive the world, understand it, participate in its persistence, share it, value it and possess it. These activities embrace the diverse motivations present in acts of so-called forgery. Moreover, these copies which we make of experience must hold to some degree a sense of coherence with the real, of being meaningfully representative of it to be satisfactory. They have, in essence, an intentionality which binds them to the world in some way. This is what I mean by the drive to realism.

The creation of copies of experience in what we do or say or – to put it another way – create is how we engage with the world, one another, and ourselves. This is how Augustine understood his famous lata et praetoria memoriae, that is ‘fields and tents of memory’ (Confessions 10.8.12): ‘From the same store come mental likenesses of the things that either I experienced for myself, or I believed in because of what I had experienced at one time or another. I weave them together with likenesses from the past: and from these I can reflect both on future actions and events and hopes, and on everything of this kind once more, as if it were all these before me.” (10.8.14). These imagines – which were for Augustine likenesses, representations, concepts and ideas – formed the building blocks of thinking about the future and thus of action itself. Moreover, as Augustine explains sentences before this passage his storehouse of imagines is where he encounters himself, it gives the self continuity and thus coherence.

Augustine’s representation of memory as a form of mental time travel has been taken up as a touchstone by cognitive scientists and philosophers alike in recent years. What is key to both Augustine’s conception of remembering and that of contemporary theories in the human sciences is the fact that it is always and essentially constructive. As Kirk Michaelian has recently summarised “remembering is not a matter of encoding, consolidating, storing, and retrieving discrete representations of discrete episodes […] these processes involve selection, abstraction, interpretation, integration, and reconstruction, all of which may introduce significant modifications to remembered information” (Mental Time Travelp. 103). Copying, reproduction, representation are fundamental to the way we recognise the world and our place in it. But the gulf between the mentalising of the world we engage in and the world itself haunts.

That gulf might be thought of as the foundational principle behind the emergence of psychology, at least in so far as we might crudely identify such an emergence in the figure of Freud. For him the conflicted relationship we have with a reality which is indifferent to our wanting is made manifest in our defences. The maintenance of a self concept tethered to reality determines psychological fitness. The inescapable disjunction between the two worlds – interior and exterior – rendered the biographical task impossible to Freud. “To be a biographer you must tie yourself up in lies, concealments, hypocrises, false colourings, and even in hiding a lack of understanding, for biographical truth is not to the had.” (Letter to Arnold Zweig, 31.5.1936). Not only do we hide ourselves from the world in various costumes and representations, but in this way too our very selves are hidden from us. Our perspective on the real is always and necessarily partisan. So it turns out that psychologically we may all be masters of forgery.

What matters are the principles we use to fabricate the necessary sense of authenticity. How do we engineer realism and how do we recognise it? The aim of the sciences at the end of the nineteenth century was to create a knowledge of the world which perfected the flawed vision revealed through experience, as Lorraine Daston and Peter Galison have explained (Objectivity, 2007). This sense of a constructed real which aimed beyond the parapets of the senses to capture a teasingly Platonic ideal informed scientific practice in the eighteenth century. The effort to capture the typical which is still a guiding principle in textbooks of all kinds saw the transformation of observation under interpretation. According to such observation only threw up deformations of the fundamental and divine perfection of nature. The job of the scientist was to restore that perfection and so bring human understanding closer to God.

In their article (‘The image of objectivity’, Representations 40, 1992, 81–128) Daston and Galison illustrate this attitude by referring to the way the Dutch anatomist Albinus proceeded with his representation of the human skeleton. Observing that skeletons differ according to age, sex and all manner of other variables, his example has been chosen to conform to the highest standards of aesthetic – that is male – beauty. Further on he adds the telling comment “As therefore painters, when they draw a handsome face, if there happens to be any blemish in it mend it in the picture, thereby to render the likeness the more beautiful; so those things which were less perfect, were mended in the figure, and were done in such a manner as to exhibit more perfect patterns; care being taken at the same time that they should be altogether just”. Albinus’ vision of the skeleton departs somewhat from the anatomical rawness we are now accustomed to see. Abridgement, embellishment, adjustment – just enough so that expectation and recognition could be satisfied – were the tools of scientific godliness.

According to Daston & Galison, the divine beauty of nature informed the use of principles of symmetry to extrapolate the form of snowflakes and the behaviour of liquids. Even after photography came to be integrated, some images were doctored in order to coax the ideal from the observation. Scientists were challenged by the difficulty of extracting the typical from highly complex arrays of particularity. Francis Galton exploited photography by using repeat exposures to superimpose the portraits of different criminals in order to arrive at a more general type. Technology’s specificity had to be tamed to reveal nature. These efforts accorded with the Romantic principles of the 18th century: no particular could be used if the perfect patterns of the universe were to be adequately represented and thereby understood.

These same interventionist tactics surface in the processes of restoration practiced in the 17th and 18th centuries, as Maree Clegg has discussed. Bernini’s Ares exemplifies this collaborative attitude towards the past. The provision of a new foot and hand for the god, a head and arms for the putto by his side, and a new handle for his sword not simply healing what was broken, but synthesising it with the aesthetic tastes of the day. However tempting we ought not think of rogue artisans applying their own philosophy of restoration to ancient remains.

In the records of a council meeting of the Louvre published in the Bulletin de la société nationale des antiquaires de france in 1906, the authenticity of an inscription which had been attached to a now lost base of a statue of Venus was discussed. In order to demonstrate the suspect nature of the base, another identical base, bearing an inscription for Lucius Caninius, proconsul of Africa, was brought forward. According to the minutes of the 309th session of the council of the central museum of arts in 1800, Visconti (the previous director of the Pio-Clementino Museum and then keeper of antiquities under the consulate headed by Napoleon) proposed that the statue attached to the Caninius inscription ought to be restored by the addition of an ancient head from an unknown Roman person of the Antonine period. The council adopted Visconti’s proposal without, it seems, further discussion. Intervention by patchwork thought honourable in 1800, raised suspicions a century later in 1906.

Intervention has over time quivered between methodological ideal and criminal practice. For Petrarch, the fourteenth century scholar, engaging with the past through its literature involved its consumption, its destruction, and recreation in order to provide it with a second life: “Take care lest [the nectar] remains in you for a long time in the same condition as when you gathered it: bees would have no glory unless they converted what they had found into something different and better. Thus, if you come across something worthy in your reading or meditation, I exhort you to change it into honey with your style …” (Letter to Tommaso da Messina, Fam. 1.8.23–24, trans. A. Lee, Petrarch and St Augustine, p. 49). This notion of the collaborative nature of the dissemination, reception, and transmission of textual knowledge stands as the indispensible backbone of the practice of textual criticism – of creating a singular version of a text from multiple unique manuscript witnesses. The idea goes back to antiquity and is present in Diodorus of Sicily’s Bibliotheca Historia.

In the provision of an outline Diodorus aimed to safeguard his work against the manipulation of compilers, evincing a concern for the dissemination of his work according to its original conception. However, what follows suggests a more collaborative vision of authorial practice: “And throughout our history it is to be hoped that what we have done well may not be the object of envy, and that the matters wherein our knowledge is defective may receive correction at the hands of more able men” (1.5.2). Authorship is not a matter of the ownership of knowledge, but the improvement of it and accordingly is open to transformation.

The sentiment is expressed more strongly in Caesarius of Arles’ preface to his sermons in which he instructs the faithful to copy them out as a devotional act, but that “if you find anything in the writing or ideas more or less than necessary, with charity be indulgent, correct the text as it needs and get it copied in better handwriting” (Sermons, 2 preface, CCL 103, ll. 22–47). The greater responsibility involved in the manual reproduction of manuscripts – with the editorial burden implied – caused John Trithemius to argue at the end of the fifteenth century in his work In Praise of Scribes for the continued superiority of copying in the face of printing’s capacity for exact mechanical reproduction. Reproduction for the bulk of history has been inexact, purposefully and virtuously so.

Yet there is something powerful in forms of likeness which dissuades us from creative abandon and sets shifting limits on what is a tolerable deviance from the real. The preoccupation of Renaissance artisans with hyperrealistic representation inspired new methods of rendering life, modelling flesh with leather and wood and making casts directly from nature, as Pamela Smith has shown (The Body of the Artisan: Art and Experience in the Scientific Revolution, 2004). For the Resurrection Scene on the North door of the Florentine Baptistry, Lorenzo Ghiberti seems to have taken pains to cast a tree branch from life in order to imbue the scene with sufficient realism (p. 11). The Renaissance mission to capture the world accurately for Ghiberti could only be achieved by relinquishing style (maniera) and understanding how the natural world was put together and perceived. The power of representation in the copying of nature was thus to be found in the knowledge of the world so discovered, demonstrated and expressed.

The power of likeness might be also observed in the 16th century treatise De arte crucifixi. There a ritual attributed to the late antique Christian heretic Pelagius promised to grant the practitioner the seven liberal arts, all of theology, the resolution of all intellectual queries and the power to summon angels and spirits to foretell the future and provide knowledge of the past. The ritual asks of the reader to undertake the following actions: “make with your own hands a carved image of our Lord hanging on the cross with his arms outstretched (…) the more naturalistic and beautiful the image, the more effective it will be – it should be a complete and perfect image”. As Pamela Smith has observed the ritual asks the practitioner for a double imitation of Christ, first in the form of the naturalistic crucifix required, and second in the imitation of nature by manual craft – the practitioner as carpenter engaged in his own imitatio Christi. The coping of nature, of the model of Christ, was by the logic of this ritual the path to ultimate knowledge and power.

The crisis of representation, of whether a typical or ideal rendering is to be preferred over a specific manifestation, of whether the real is accessible to our senses at all, was resolved differently in the 19th and 20th century. As scientists at the turn of the century began to express their preference for the exactitude of mechanical observation as salve to the imperfections of the human gaze, literary theorists rejected the reduction to typicality represented by the earlier Romantic, classical and neoclassical styles. Theorists like Georg Lukács and Eric Auerbach advocated a realism expressed in the particular, the specific, the non typical character whose reactions revealed the complex forces which made up reality. For the Marxist Lukács this meant not a photographic reality, but the use of complexity of characterisation to let the true nature of social forces be felt in the fate of individuals – a commendably historical agenda. For Auerbach reality was likewise to be found in the intersections between the different ways individuals experienced the world. So a modernist like Virginia Woolf could be praised for putting “the emphasis on the random occurrence, to exploit it not in the service of a planned continuity of action but in itself. And in the process something new and elemental appeared: nothing less than the wealth of reality and depth of life in every moment to which we surrender ourselves without prejudice” (Mimesis, p. 552). Paradoxically newness here is to be found in the rendering of that most familiar thing – the real.

Realism, it turns out, like forgery, is a matter of perspective. It requires, according to Roman Jacobson, both being apparently real and distinctly individual – the conflation between the two notions, realness and individuality, not here assumed. It also demands a disruption of tradition, a confidence to let the unusual have its impact – as many acts of forgery too. This was the excuse George Eliot required to justify the outlandish events in Daniel Deronda. Quoting Aristotle’s Agathon (Poetics, 25) she could declare “it is a part of probability that many improbable things will happen”. Jesus could even have a wife.

Reflecting on the features of realism we might recognise those which have made forgery the broad church that it is. One which must embrace the less sensational examples; the certificates which provide verbal and material manifestations of oral traditions of the authenticity of relics in the medieval period; the composite statuary engineered by restorers of the 17th and 18th centuries; the fan fiction elaborations on lost ancient works produced by the likes of Simonides; and the earnest textual and monumental reproductions attempted by Renaissance artisans which passed into the tradition before being cast out as deceitful replicas. The unsavoury histories of forgery dominate and distort our appreciation of the habit, one which shares with the other arts of realism a genuine interest in understanding, translating, sharing and possessing our own experiences and those of others. We dismiss the replicant as somehow lesser because it reveals the fallibility of our most anxious compulsions – our inescapable need to reproduce.

Rachel Yuen-Collingridge