‘Markers of Authenticity’ in 2017

We’re a bit late on reporting on our Markers of Authenticity series in 2017, but thought we should put out a recap as we look ahead to 2018.

In 2017 the Markers of Authenticity Interdisciplinary Seminar Series continued at Macquarie University, supported by funding from Faculty of Arts Research Theme funding scheme, and the MQ Ancient Cultures Research Centre: we’re very grateful to both bodies for their generous support.

Our 2017 program saw an increase in disciplinary representation across the Faculty and University: as well as the range of fields represented by the presenters, the audiences regularly featured staff and students from a wide range of departments (International Studies; English; Ancient History; Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies; Linguistics; Philosophy; Modern History; Security Studies and Criminology; and Cognitive Science). Audience numbers averaged between 20 and 30 throughout the year, with several larger events exceeding this. This year we aimed to enhance our  links with other research clusters and centres, and to this end co-sponsored events with the Centre for Applied History, the ‘Environmental Humanities’ research cluster, the ‘World Literatures and Cultures’ Research Cluster, and the Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies.

In the first half of 2017 we held three events: a seminar ‘On Authenticity and Race’ on May 26th, given by Dr Adam Hochman (Philosophy) with a response by A/Prof. Andrew Gillett (Ancient History); an introduction and progress report on the ARC-funded Project ‘Forging Antiquity’ by A/Prof. Malcolm Choat, Dr Rachel-Yuen Collingridge, and our PACE intern (and now Research Assistant) Vanessa Mawby (Ancient History) on June 2; and a conversation on June 9th on ‘The Internet Antiquities Trade: Insight into an Invisible Market?’ between Lauren Dundler (MRes student, Ancient History) and Iain Shearer (Freelance archaeologist, Honorary Fellow University College London).

We began our program for the second half of the year on August 14th with a seminar on ‘Faking the News’, with papers by Dr Colin Klein (Philosophy) and Dr Margie Borschke (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies). This was followed on September 5th by a seminar by Dr Julian Droogan (Security Studies and Criminology) on ‘The Authentic Terrorist?: Mobilising the Past, Battling for the Future’.

confOn October 13th–14th, we co-hosted a conference, ‘Imagining the Real: Alternative (Arte)Facts from Antiquity to the Present Day’ with the Australian Centre for Ancient Numismatic Studies, which featured keynote speakers from the University of Western Australia (Emeritus Professors John Melville Jones ) and University of Agder (Professor Årstein Justnes), in addition to a range of other speakers ( program and abstracts for the conference).

In late October (26th), we held a seminar on ‘Creative Authenticity: Originality and the Real’ with papers given by Dr. Mio Bryce (International Studies) and Dr Ilona Hongisto (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies).

In early November (2nd), we co-sponsored a panel on the ‘Authenticity of Experience: IMG_20171102_190404History and Gaming’ with the Centre for Applied History, which was attended by nearly 60 people. Dr Rowan Tulloch (Music, Media, Communication and Cultural Studies), Daniel Keogh (Educational Games Designer, 3P Learning), and Abbie Hartman (Modern History), gave presentations, followed by a lively Q&A with the audience. Thanks to funding contributed by the Centre for Applied History, the presentations were recorded on video, and can be seen online.

One week later (Nov. 9th), we held a seminar on the ‘Authenticity of Desire’ with papers by Dr Thomas Baudinette (International Studies), and Dr Chelsea Barnett (Modern History). Finally, we co-sponsored a workshop on December 11th on ‘Environmental Change and the Historical Imaginary: Ancient, Medieval, Modern’, with the ‘Environmental Humanities’ research cluster, convened by Professor Louise D’Arcens (English) and featuring an international keynote as well as speakers from Ancient History, Modern History, and English.

We think the 2017 iteration of the series had extremely good outcomes in terms of bringing together a broad cross-disciplinary group to a regular forum to discuss a central theme from multiple disciplinary perspectives. Planning for our 2018 program is well advanced (see our ideas here), and we hope to see many of you at these events: we’ll post a final schedule as soon as it’s available.

Markers of Authenticity, Events for 2018

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For 2018 we have a range of events planned including seminars, a conference, and a showcase evening.

We will be holding seminars on:

  • the Authenticity of the Body, looking at the history and present of the medical interventions on and reasoning about ‘authentic’ bodies;
  • the Authenticity of Landscape, looking at the way ideas of authenticity are mobilised to privilege certain environments and stages of cultivation over others;
  • the Authenticity of Identity, looking at the way identity is determined and policed by new technologies meant to counter identity fraud

And finally

  • the Authenticity of Faith, looking at discourses of heresy, faith, and delusion from a range of perspectives including historical and cognitive.

The conference,  How to edit a forgery: Manuscripts from the Margins, for the Australian Research Council Discovery Project: Forging Antiquity: Authenticity, forgery and fake papyri, will consider the how and why of editing forgeries from a practical and ethical perspective. The conference will involve a number of international scholars from diverse fields from antiquity through to the Renaissance examining these issues through editions of specific forgeries, as well as a series of public lectures to showcase the theme.

And finally, to end the year off, we will host a showcase event on the intersection between Art and Science, looking at the way humanities methods have been used to propel and communicate scientific discovery. The format of the evening will be one of wonder and spectacle, to remind us that scientific communication (broadly conceived) has historically been embedded in worlds of social and intellectual ritual, from the salon through to the cabinet of curiosity.

Do sign up to keep in touch and hear more about these events as our plans unfold!

 

Rights of the Dead and Orientalism

In a learned discussion about the history of the ethics of displaying human remains, Chip Colwell (senior curator of Anthropology at the Denver Museum of Nature & Science) illustrates many problems with displaying  Human Remains (‘The Long Ethical Arc of Displaying Human Remains’, Atlas Obscura, November 16, 2017). The discussion covers the current fad for exhibitions of human remains and narrates the history of the collection and exhibition of Native American Human Remains and the successful battle to prohibit this and return remains to their communities.

Colwell draws comparison with the treatment of human remain from other cultures (Britain, Vikings, Neolithic China), highlighting in particular the case of the Egyptian mummy.

He draws attention to the indulgent use of Egyptian remains as a source of spectacle and fantasy from the Enlightenment on (he might have also included reference to the long Renaissance engagement with Egypt propelled in part by the rediscovery of Horapollo’s ‘translation’ of hieroglyphs among others).  Here he points out rightly “the collection of Egyptian skeletons is rooted in colonialism and a disregard for the wishes of the dead.” However, the claims which follow make out of Ancient Egypt a special case and include a number of points with which we would take issue.

The paragraph of concern in its entirety runs as follows:

Like the treatment of Native Americans, the collection of Egyptian skeletons is rooted in colonialism and a disregard for the wishes of the dead. But, while living Native Americans claim descent from their continent’s first peoples, the Islamic communities of Egypt do not claim continuity with the people who built the pyramids. And even if they did, mummies were gathered to glorify ancient Egyptians while Native American skeletons were long collected to dehumanize indigenous peoples. The modern-day Egyptian government has given its consent for the excavation of tombs.

Let’s examine these claims:

The claim that “the Islamic communities of Egypt do not claim continuity with the people who built the pyramids” reflects a widespread misconception which does not recognise explicit institutional and popular identifications with the Pharaonic past. The use of Pharaonic imagery in government artworks like those which adorn the National Military Museum illustrates the ongoing importance of Egypt’s ancient history to its sense of agency and identity.

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National Military Museum, Cairo. Image: Richard Seaman, http://www.richard-seaman.com/Aircraft/Museums/EgyptianNationalMilitaryMuseum/index.html

Likewise the spontaneous appearance of Pharaonic imagery in graffiti during and after the Revolution by Egyptian artists like Alaa Awad among others attests to the ongoing importance of Ancient Egypt to the present and future of Egypt’s peoples (see the discussion by Lisa Lau, ‘The murals of Mohammad Mahmoud Street: Reclaiming Narratives of Living History for the Egyptian People’, Boston University: Arts & Sciences Writing Program, Issue 5, 2013–2013).

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Alaa Awad’s mural from Mohammad Mahmoud Street, image: Lisa Lau, http://www.bu.edu/writingprogram/journal/past-issues/issue-5/lau/

Such a sharp division between Egypt’s Pharaonic and Islamic pasts does not acknowledge the fact that some of the earliest Egyptologists concerned with the material and linguistic remains of Ancient Egypt were Islamic scholars. Figures like Al-Idrisi, the 12th century scholar responsible for some of the earliest descriptions of the monuments at Giza, or Ibn Wahshiyya, the 9th/10th century alchemist whose investigations of hieroglyphs recognised determinatives and some phonetic values, have been largely excluded from the Napoleon-centric version of the history of Egyptology.

Beyond these artistic, governmental, and scholarly links, a connection with the Pharaonic past is deeply felt by many modern Egyptians, within Egypt and throughout the Egyptian diaspora. At times the ‘authenticity’ of such connections is disputed. This type of argument engages in an orientalising view of culture, in which only certain communities are allowed to sustain the integrity of their connection with the past in spite of monumental and significant changes in belief, government, practices and demography (see on this in particular the work of James Clifford). The “glorification” of Egypt in the hands of scholarship has often supported – not combatted – the orientalising view of Egypt as other. A fetishised approval is no less diminishing.

Finally, one might interrogate the notion of consent. Colwell correctly notes that the Egyptian government, via the Ministry of Antiquities, grants permission for the archaeological investigation of theses tombs. But what of the wishes of the dead? Evidence from grave and tomb inscriptions from across the Mediterranean indicates clearly that disturbing a burial threatened the spiritual wellbeing of the deceased. Such interference is strictly and explicitly prohibited. The evidence from Ancient Egypt is voluminous in this respect. The statements are repeated in tombs from across Egypt’s history from the Old Kingdom to the Late period, such as the 6th Dynasty tomb of Djenwen:

“As for any man who will do something against this (tomb), there will be judgement with him by the Great God”

or the 25th Dynasty Block Statue of Montuemhat from Karnak:

“As for anyone against this tomb in my place: the one who disturbs is a criminal”

or finally the 18th Dynasty Statue of Wersu from Koptos:

“As for anyone who will desecrate my corpse in the necropolis, who will remove my statue from my tomb, he will be a hated one of Re, he will not receive water from the water-jar of Osiris, he will not hand over his possessions to his children, ever.” … “As for the one who desecrates my place, who will damage my tomb or remove my corpse, the soul of Re will hate him, he will not hand over his possessions to his children, his heart will not rest in life, he will not receive water in the necropolis, his soul will be destroyed forever.”

In these curses the damage to be inflicted on those who violate the bodies and tombs of the deceased mirrors that which is incurred by the deceased through such actions.

The beliefs of the Ancient Egyptians are as clear as can be on this matter, as countless curses of this nature demonstrate. More can be found in the thesis of Sarah Colledge, who studied these curses for her 2015 Liverpool PhD, and whose translations we cite above (other examples are on her blog, and in the thesis itself which may be viewed here). It’s unlikely that the Ancient Egyptians would be sympathetic to the ethical sophistry of those who might want to argue that new non-invasive technologies (CT scanning among others) respect these wishes: such scans are only possible because the bodies have been removed from the tomb (thus violating the dead’s wishes) in the first place.

An advanced screening at the recent ‘Creative Uses of the Archive‘ Workshop at Macquarie University of parts of the documentary, Etched in Bone, being made by ANU researchers Martin Thomas and Béatrice Bijon about the stealing and repatriation of skeletal remains from mortuary caves in a North Australian Aboriginal reserve provided us with a salient reminder of the importance of critically assessing past practice. The remains which were taken to the Smithsonian Institution when the National Geographic American-Australian Scientific Expedition to Arnhem Land visited the region in 1948 were repatriated to the settlement of Gunbalanya after a long campaign by the Australian government (among others) in 2009–2010. Such repatriation efforts sadly coincide often with the deaths of those who witnessed the thefts in the first place. They remind us of our responsibilities to the dead and to the diverse communities to which they belong. In the case of people from the ancient world, there may be no one left to speak for them:  does this mean we should heed their wishes any less?

Malcolm & Rachel

 

 

 

Creative Uses of the Archive

Last month in the Markers of Authenticity Seminar Series we enjoyed a paper by Dr Ilona Hongisto on ‘True fabulations: The act of creation in documentary cinema’ in our seminar dedicated to creative authenticity. Ilona will be running a fantastic symposium with Dr Tom Murray next Friday (Nov. 10) at Macquarie University called Creative Uses of the Archive which will explore the uses and misuses of archival documents in documentary film, historical research, anthropology and non-fiction writing. More information about the symposium, keynotes and program is available on our Related Events page.

Replacing Race – Adam Hochman

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Earlier this year, Dr Adam Hochman (Philosophy) presented in our Markers of Authenticity seminar ‘On authenticity and race’ (May, 2017). Those of you in attendance and those who couldn’t make it will be excited to hear that Adam’s thoughts about the failure of race to be a viable social category have now been published as ‘Replacing Race: Interactive Constructionism about Racialized Groups‘, ERGO 4 (2017) 61–92, which has been made available on Adam’s academia.edu page. If you haven’t yet got the opportunity to hear Adam speak on these issues (and even if you have) make sure to get yourself a copy.

This is Not a Remix: Piracy, Authenticity and Popular Music – Margie Borschke

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Those of you lucky enough to hear Dr Margie Borschke talk about copying, network culture, authenticity and mimesis at either the Markers of Authenticity Seminar in October, 2016 or in our recent conference ‘Imagining the Real: Alternative (Arte)facts from Antiquity to the Present Day’ (October, 2017) will be keen to get your copy of her stimulating and brilliant book, This is Not a Remix (available in hardcopy,  paperback, EPUB ebook and PDF ebook). Margie’s book is being launched today in MMCCS and the whole Markers of Authenticity team sends their very best for this fantastic occasion.

Seminar: ‘Creative Authenticity: Originality and the Real’

Our next  ‘Markers of Authenticity’ seminar, on ‘Creative Authenticity: Originality and the Real’, is a co-sponsored event with the ‘World Literatures and Cultures’ research cluster at Macquarie University. It  features papers by Drs Mio Bryce and Ilona Hongisto of Macquarie University, who will address the topic from different creative and cultural perspectives, followed by a discussion on the theme. The seminar will take place in the Level 5 seminar room (212) in the Australian Hearing Hub at Macquarie University on Thursday 26th of October, from 4.00–5.15 pm, with refreshments to follow the discussion.
 
‘Creative Authenticity: Originality and the Real’
Thursday October 26th, 4:00pm–6:00pm
Australian Hearing Hub, Level 5, Seminar Room 212
 
‘Witty rather than original: collaborative authenticity in classical Japanese poetry’
Dr Mio Bryce (Department of International Studies: Languages and Cultures)
 
Japanese traditional poetry, waka, poses questions to notions of authenticity in terms of originality and creativity. In the Heian period (794–1185), cultural codes and knowledge were shared, and a harmonious appropriation to each given situation was required. Suggestive, metaphorical, and aesthetically contextualised expressions were appreciated, rather than candid manifestations. Waka was a respected means of communication: yet like emails, it was not fully private. Therefore, another dimension was formulated within waka to convey the true meaning in a more subtle manner, utilising a number of rhetorical concepts and apparatuses. This means that the authenticity of waka lay not in creativity and originality from today’s point of view, but in witty, intertextual appropriation of images and sentiments based on a shared culture and literary tradition.
 
‘True fabulations: The act of creation in documentary cinema’
Dr Ilona Hongisto (Department of Media, Music, Communication and Cultural Studies)
 
This paper reconsiders the truth claims of documentary cinema through the notion of fabulation. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze’s postulation of ‘the powers of the false’ and the genealogy of fabulation in Friedrich Nietzsche’s thought, the paper relocates the modus operandi of documentary cinema from truthful representations to acts of fabulation in reality. The notion of fabulation describes the work of documentary cinema as one that engages with ‘the false’ in order to produce relations that enrich and add to existing realities. As such, it moves away from established documentary discourse where truth claims are conditioned on replicating a priori realities and enabled by the documentary’s representative modalities. Fabulation locates truth as that which is created in the documentary, making true fabulations the creative acts with which the documentary enriches the real.